Swift 5.1: Strings Cheat Sheet

// Using a string literal as an initial value for
// a constant or variable
let helloWorld = "Hello, World!"
// Using a multiline string literal to span
// over several Lines
let helloWorldProgram = """
A "Hello, World!" program generally is a computer program that outputs or displays the message "Hello, World!"
"""
// Empty string
let emptyString = "" // Using string Literal
// Initializer syntax
let anotherEmptyString = String()
// Mutating a string
var mutableString = "Swift"
mutableString += " is awesome!"
// String interpolation
// Interpolating a Double
print("The value is (double)”)
// Interpolating a String
print("This is my opinion: (mutableString)”)

Swift 5.1: Numeric Type Conversion Cheat Sheet

let integerValue = 8
let doubleValue = 8.2
// let sum = integerValue + double
// Error: type mismatch

// Use an opt-in approach that prevents hidden
// conversion errors and helps make type conversion
// intentions explicit
let sum = Double(integerValue) + double
// OK: Both values have the same type

Swift 5.1: Tuples Cheat Sheet

// Group multiple values into
// a single compound value
let httpError = (503, “Server Error")
// Decomposing a tuple's contents
let (code, reason) = httpError
// Another way to decompose
let codeByIndex = httpError.0
let reasonByIndex = httpError.1
// Ignoring parts of the tuple using _
let (_, justTheReason) = httpError

Swift 5.1 Optionals Cheat Sheet

// catchphrase can hold a String or nil
var catchphrase: String? // Automatically set to nil
catchphrase = "Hey, what's up, everybody?"
// Forced unwrapping operator (!)
// count1 contains catchphrase's count if
// catchphrase isn't nil; crashes otherwise
let count1: Int = catchphrase!.count
// Optional binding
// If the optional Int returned by
// catchphrase?.count contains a value,
// set a new constant called count to the value
// contained in the optional
if let count = catchphrase?.count {
  print(count)
}
// Coalescing operator (??)
// count2 contains catchphrase's count if
// catchphrase isn't nil; 0 otherwise
let count2: Int = catchphrase?.count ?? 0
// Coalescing operator (??)
// count2 contains catchphrase's count if
// catchphrase isn't nil; 0 otherwise
let count2: Int = catchphrase?.count ?? 0
// Chaining operator (?)
// count3 contains catchphrase's count if
// catchphrase isn't nil; nil otherwise
let count3: Int? = catchphrase?. count
// Implicitly unwrapped optionals
let forcedCatchphrase: String! =
  "Hey, what's up, everybody?"
let implicitCatchphrase = forcedCatchphrase
// Don't need for an exclamation mark

Swift 5.1: Collection Types Cheat Sheet

Arrays, sets, and dictionaries in Swift are always clear about the types of values and keys that they can store. If you create an array, a set, or a dictionary, and assign it to a variable, the collection that is created will be mutable. This means that you can change (or mutate) the collection after it’s created by adding, removing, or changing items in the collection. If you assign an array, a set, or a dictionary to a constant, that collection is immutable, and its size and contents cannot be changed.

# Array

An array stores values of the same type in an ordered list. The same value can appear in an array multiple times at different positions.

let immutableArray: [String] = ["Alice", "Bob"]
// Type of mutableArray inferred as [String]
var mutableArray = ["Eve", "Frank"]
// Test the membership
let isEveThere = immutableArray.contains(“Eve")
// Access by index
let name: String = immutableArray[0]
// Update item in list;
// crashes if the index is out of range
mutableArray[1] = "Bart"
// immutableArray[1] = "Bart" // Error: can't change
mutableArray.append("Ellen") // Add an item
// Add an item at index
mutableArray.insert("Gemma", at: 1)
// Delete by index
let removedPerson = mutableArray.remove(at: 1)
// You can't reassign a let collection nor change
// its content; you can reassign a var collection
// and change its content
mutableArray = ["Ilary", "David"]
mutableArray[0] = “John"
# Set

set stores distinct values of the same type in a collection with no defined ordering. You can use a set instead of an array when the order of items is not important, or when you need to ensure that an item only appears once.

// Sets ignore duplicate items, so immutableSet
// has 2 items: "chocolate" and "vanilla"
let immutableSet: Set =
  ["chocolate", "vanilla", '"chocolate"]
var mutableSet: Set =
  ["butterscotch", "strawberry'']
// A way to test membership
immutableSet.contains("chocolate")
// Add item
mutableSet.insert("green tea")
// Remove item, if the item isn't found returns nil
let flavorWasRemoved: String? =
mutableSet.remove("strawberry"
#Dictionary

dictionary stores associations between keys of the same type and values of the same type in a collection with no defined ordering. Each value is associated with a unique key, which acts as an identifier for that value within the dictionary. Unlike items in an array, items in a dictionary do not have a specified order. You use a dictionary when you need to lookup values based on their identifier, in much the same way that a real-world dictionary is used to look up the definition for a particular word.

let immutableDict: [String: String] =
["name": "Kirk", "rank": "captain"]
// Type of mutableDict inferred as [String: String]
var mutableDict =
["name": "Picard", "rank": "captain"
// Access by key, if the key isn't found returns nil
let name2: String? = immutableDict["name"]
// Update value for key
mutableDict["name"] = "Janeway"
// Add new key and value
mutableDict["ship"] = "Voyager"
// Delete by key, if the key isn't found returns nil
let rankWasRemoved: String? =
mutableDict. removeValue(forKkey: "rank")

Swift 5.1: Function Cheat Sheet

// A Void function
func sayHello() {
  print("Hello")
}

// Function with parameters
func sayHello(name: String) {
  print("Hello (name)!")
}

// Function with default parameters
func sayHello(name: String = "Lorenzo") {
  print("Hello (name)!")
}

// Function with mix of default and
// regular parameters
func sayHello(name: String = "Lorenzo", age: Int) {
  print("(name) is (age) years old!")
}
// Using just the non default value
sayHello(age: 35)

// Function with parameters and return value
fune add(x: Int, y: Int) -> Int {
  return x + y
}
let value = add(x: 8, y: 10)

// If the function contains a single expression,
// the return value can be omitted
func multiply(x: Int, y: Int) —> Int {
  x * y
}

// Specifying arguments labels
func add(x xVal: Int, y yVal: Int) -> Int {
  return xVal + yVal
}

// Omitting the argument label for one
// (or more) parameters
fune add(_ x: Int, y: Int) -> Int {
  return x + y
}
let value = add(8, y: 10)

// A function that accepts another function
func doMath(operation: (Int, Int) -> Int, a: Int, b: Int) —> Int {
  return operation(a, b)
}

Swift 5.1: Closures Cheat Sheet

let adder: (Int, Int) -> Int = { (x, y) in x + y }

// Closures with shorthand argument name
let square: (Int) -> Int = { $0 * $0 }

// Passing a closure to a function
let addWithClosure = doMath(operation: adder, a: 2, b: 3)

Swift 5.1: Enumerations Cheat Sheet

enum Taste {
  case sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami
}
let vinegarTaste = Taste.sour

//Iterating through an enum class
enum Food: CaseIterable {
  case pasta, pizza, hamburger
}

for food in Food.allCases {
  print(food)
}

// enum with String raw values
enum Currency: String {
  case euro = "EUR"
  case dollar = "USD"
  case pound = "GBP"
}

// Print the backing value
let euroSymbol = Currency.euro.rawValue
  print("The currency symbol for Euro is \ (euroSymbol)"')

// enum with associated values
enum Content {
  case empty
  case text(String)
  case number(Int)
}

// Matching enumeration values with a switch statement
let content = Content.text("Hello") 
switch content {
case .empty:
  print("Value is empty")
case .text(let value): // Extract the String value
  print("Value is (value)")
case .number(_): // Ignore the Int value
  print("Value is a number")
}

Swift 5.1: Structs Cheat Sheet

struct User {
var name: String
var age: Int = 40
}


// A memberwise initializer is automatically created to accept 
//parameters matching the properties of the struct
let john = User(name: "John", age: 35)

// Memberwise initializer uses default parameter values for 
//any properties that have them
let dave = User(name: “Dave")

// Accessing properties
print("(john.name) is (john.age) years old")

Swift 5.1: Inheritance Cheat Sheet

class Student: Person {
  var numberOfExams: Int = 0

  // Override isHappy computed property 
  //providing additional logic
  override var isHappy: Bool {
  numberOfLaughs > 0 && numberOfExams > 2
  }
}

let ray = Student(name: "Ray")
ray.numberOfExams = 4
ray. Laugh()
let happy = ray.isHappy
// Mark Child as final to prevent subclassing
final class Child: Person { }

Swift 5.1: Classes Cheat Sheet

class Person {
  let name: String
  // Class initializer
  init(name: String) {
  self.name = name
  }

  // Using deinit to perform object's resources cleanup
  deinit {
  print("Perform the deinitialization")
  }

  var numberOfLaughs: Int = 0
  func laugh() {
  numberOfLaughs += 1

  // Define a computed property
  var isHappy: Bool {
  return numberOfLaughs > 0
  }
}

let david = Person(name: "David")
david.laugh()
let happy = david.isHappy

Swift 5.1: Designated & Convenience Initializers Cheat Sheet

// A class must have at least one
// designated initializer and may have one or more
// convenience initializers
class ModeOfTransportation {
  let name: String
  // Define a designated initializer
  // that takes a single argument called name
  init(name: String) {
    self.name = name
  }

  // Define a convenience initializer
  // that takes no arguments
  convenience init() {
    // Delegate to the internal
    // designated initializer
    self.init(name: "Not classified")
  }
}

class Vehicle: ModeOfTransportation {
  let wheels: Int
  // Define a designated initializer.  
  // that takes two arguments called name and wheels
  init(name: String, wheels: Int) {
    self.wheels = wheels
    // Delegate up to the superclass
    // designated initializer
    super.init(name: name)
  }
  // Override the superclass convenience initializer
  override convenience init(name: String) {
    // Delegate to the internal
    // designated initializer
    self.init(name: name, wheels: 4)
  }
}

Swift 5.1: Extensions Cheat Sheet

// Extensions add new functionality to an existing
// class, structure, enumeration, or protocol type
extension String {

  // Extending String type to calculate
  // if a String instance is truthy or falsy
  var boolValue: Bool {
    if self == "1" {
      return true
    }
    return false
  }
}

let isTrue = "0".boolValue

Swift 5.1: Error Handling Cheat Sheet

// Representing an error
enum BeverageMachineError: Error {
  case invalidSelection
  case insufficientFunds
  case outOfStock
}

func selectBeverage(_ selection: Int) throws —>
String {
  // Some logic here
  return "Waiting for beverage…"
}

// If an error is thrown by the code in the do
// clause, it is matched against the catch clauses
// to determine which one of them can handle the error
let message: String
do {
  message = try selectBeverage(20)
} catch BeverageMachineError.invalidSelection {
  print("Invalid selection")
} catch BeverageMachineError.insufficientFunds {
  print("Insufficient funds")
} catch BeverageMachineError.out0fStock {
  print("Out of stock")
} catch {
  print("Generic error")
}

// If an error is thrown while evaluating the try?
// expression, the value of the expression is nil
let nillableMessage = try? selectBeverage(10)

// If an error is throws you'll get a runtime error,
// otherwise the value
let throwableMessage = try! selectBeverage(10)

Swift 5.1: Coding Protocols Cheat Sheet

import Foundation

// Codable conformance is the same as conforming
// separately to Decodable and Encodable protocols
struct UserInfo: Codable {
  let username: String
  let loginCount: Int

// Conform to CustomStringConvertible to provide
// a specific representation when converting the instance to a string
extension UserInfo: CustomStringConvertible {
  var description: String {
    return "(username) has tried to login \
(loginCount) time(s)"
  }
}

// Define multiline string literal to represent JSON
let json = """
{ "username": "David", "loginCount": 2 }
"""

// Using JSONDecoder to serialize JSON
let decoder = JSONDecoder()

// Transform string to its data representation
let data = json.data(using: .utf8)!
let userInfo = try! decoder.decode(UserInfo.self, from: data)
print(userInfo)

// Using Encodable to serialize a struct
let encoder = JSONEncoder()
let userInfoData = try! encoder.encode(userInfo)

// Transform data to its string representation
let jsonString = String(data: userInfoData, encoding: .utf8)}!
print(jsonString)

Swift 5.1: Access Control Cheat Sheet

// A module — a framework or an application — is
// a single unit of code distribution that can be
// imported by another module with import keyword

// Class accessible from other modules
public class AccessLevelsShowcase {

  // Property accessible from other modules
  public var somePublicProperty = 0

  // Property accessible from the module is contained into
  var someInternalProperty = 0

  // Property accessible from its own defining source file
  fileprivate func someFilePrivateMethod() {}

  // Property accessible from its enclosing declaration
  private func somePrivateMethod() {}
}

Swift 5.1: Control Flow Cheat Sheet

#Loops
// Iterate over list or set
for item in listOrSet {
print(item)
}

// Iterate over dictionary
for (key, value) in dictionary {
print("(key) = (value)")
}

// Iterate over ranges
// Closed range operator (…)
for i in 0…10 {
print(i) // 0 to 10
}

// Half-open range operator (..<)
for i in 0..<10 {
print(i) // 0 to 9
}

// while
var x = @
while x < 10 {
x += 1
print(x)
}

// repeat-while
repeat {
x -= 1
print(x)
} while(x > 0)
#Conditionals
// Using if to choose different paths
let number = 88
if (number <= 10) { 
  // If number <= 10, this gets executed 
} else if (number > 10 && number < 100) { 
  // If number > 10 && number < 100,
  // this gets executed
} else {
  // Otherwise this gets executed
}
// Ternary operator
// A shorthand for an if-else condition
let height = 100
let isTall = height > 200 ? true : false

// Using guard to transfer program control
// out of a scope if one or more conditions
// aren’t met
for n in 1…30 {
  guard n % 2 == @ else {
    continue
  }
  print("(n) is even") 
}

// Using switch to choose different paths
let year = 2012
switch year {
case 2003, 2004:
  // Execute this statement if year is 2003 or 2004
  print("Panther or Tiger'')
case 2010:
  // Execute this statement if year is exactly 2010
  print("Lion")
case 2012…2015:
  // Execute this statement if year is
  // within the range 2012-2015,
  // range boundaries included
  print("Mountain Lion through El Captain")
default:
  // Every switch statement must be exhaustive
  print("Not already classified")
}